^ PART 4 DEVELOPING READING SKILLS TEXT 1 ‘The Civil Rights Movement and Affirmative Action’ |
- Study the glossary to the article. Find the words in the context and choose the proper translation.
hierarchy 1) ієрархія to rise in the hierarchy — одержати підвищення
academic hierarchy — ієрархія учених ступенів / викладацьких звань
church hierarchy — церковна ієрархія
corporate hierarchy — корпоративна ієрархія
military hierarchy — ієрархія військових звань
ruling hierarchy — існуюча ієрархія
hierarchy of goals, hierarchy of objectives — дерево цілей
hierarchy of strategy — ієрархія стратегії
ineluctable неминучий, невідворотний, фатальний Syn: inevitable , unavoidable
infer 1) укладати; робити ( логічний ) висновок; виводити ( висновок, наслідок і т.п.; from - з чего-л. ) What do you infer from the voting figures? — Які висновки ви робите з результатів голосування. Syn: deduce, conclude, judge , gather
2) значити, позначати, означати, мати на увазі; наводити на думку Syn: imply , mean III, indicate , suggest , hint
3) робити припущення, висловлювати здогад Syn: guess , surmise
meritocracy - система, при якій становище людини в суспільстві визначається його здібностями; уряд, що складається з освічених людей; освічена еліта
project 1) а) проект, план; програма ( будівництва і т.п. )
to carry out a project — здійснювати план, виконувати програму
to conceive project — задумати план
to draw up a project — складати проект / програму
to shelve a project — відкладати проект "у довгу шухляду"
irrigation project - land-reclamation project - pilot project - public-works project - water- conservation project
Syn: activity , enterprise , operation , undertaking , programme , scheme
б) завдання дослідницького характеру для школярів чи студентів, зв'язане з конкретною галуззю наукових знань
2) а) будівельний об'єкт, здійснюване будівництво
б) комплекс житлових будинків ( що фінансується урядом ); мікрорайон
3) ідея, думка, намір Syn: idea
retraction 1) а) утягування; стягування; відведення назад б) скорочення
2) зречення (від своїх слів ); відмовлення ( від своєї обіцянки і т.п. ); визнання помилковим Syn: retractation
thoroughgoing 1) идущий напролом, без компромісів He was a thoroughgoing party leader. — Він був безкомпромісним партійним лідером.
unassuming - невибагливий, скромний Syn: modest
unobjectionable 1) без зухвалих заперечень
2) приємний, без зухвалого неприємного почуття
vulnerable - уразливий; ранимий Syn: defenceless , untenable , exposed
Ant: fortified, impenetrable, impregnable , invincible , unassailable , guarded , protected
4.2 Read the text ‘The Civil Rights Movement and Affirmative Action’ by Jamin B. Raskin
The Civil Rights Movement and Affirmative Action
About the author: Jamin B. Raskin, a professor at American University Washington College of Law, is a lecturer and a frequent contributor to The Nation and several law reviews.
…In defending affirmative action, it is necessary to go beyond the idea of sharing power and resources in a culturally plural society. It is essential to recall the political and spiritual project of the modern Civil Rights movement that made affirmative action both necessary and possible. The Civil Rights movement never had as its conscious political project the creation of "affirmative action" or "set-aside" programs in various white-controlled institutions like universities, corporations, and labor unions. Affirmative action, rather, came about as part of the dominant society's effort to respond to the movement's growing insistence on fundamental social change to end oppressive conditions pervasive in the African-American community.
It is a measure of both the vanishing of a popular energized civil rights movement and the nation's economic retraction that this modest program, seen as so unassuming and unobjectionable at the beginning, is now reviled in many places, deeply controversial and profoundly vulnerable. Thus, progressives who ought to be promoting far more radical proposals to reduce class power and race inequality in America are left holding the bag for a program designed by the establishment to assimilate social changes in a safe way and at a cautious speed…
We need a defense of affirmative action that links up with a thoroughgoing critique of American meritocracy and power relationships. We need to revive a progressive challenge to the background social assumptions about education and employment in America: that higher education is for the elite only and should not be free to the people; that privately created and administered standardized exams are the best way to ascertain merit and distribute students across various levels of colleges; that the best teachers should teach the best students; that no one has a right to a job or productive work; that extreme hierarchy and role-division is inherent in the workplace; that radical disparities between the wages of people who handle things and people who handle words are natural and necessary; that work commonly done by women is inherently less worthy than work commonly done by men; that unions are an albatross and must be as authoritarian as employers; and that the society must operate on the principle of constant and fierce individual competition or else face ineluctable economic decline.…
To transcend the destructive politics of division and derision surrounding affirmative action (if we still can), we need to reaffirm the equality of all peoples in a culturally pluralist society and to posit a universal politics of freedom and equality for the next century. But a vigorous defense of affirmative action right now is central to such a politics. For in a society where the lines of race and gender double as lines of class and power, even the idea of affirmative action for minorities and women is an affront to the structure of domination and inequality. Our job must be to make affirmative action the first line of defense in a politics which insists that all citizens have a right to equal participation in the fruits of our social life.
4.3 Use the expressions below in the sentences of your own. Try to make a connected text on the problem of higher education in Ukraine.
4.4 Discuss the following questions:
culturally plural society
conscious political project
constant and fierce individual competition
deeply controversial and profoundly vulnerable
double as lines of class and power
extreme hierarchy and role-division
fruits of our social life
ineluctable economic decline
meritocracy and power relationships
political and spiritual project
privately created and administered standardized exams
the nation's economic retraction
unassuming and unobjectionable
-Characterise the text under study. Say what features make it a sample of oratory speech. Illustrate your answer citing the text.
-Formulate the main idea of the text. What is the role of parallel constructions and anaphoric reiteration?
-Why does Jamin B. Raskin consider there is a need in defense of affirmative action? How does he prove his idea?
-Explain the meaning of the term “affirmative action”. Who was it first introduced by?
-Comment on Raskin’s attitude to sharing power and resources in a culturally plural society.
- What stylistic devices prevail in the text ? Point them out and comment on their function.
4.5 Evaluating a story. Study the piece of theory below and define the style of Text One. Prove your point of view with examples.
Style is the novelist’s choice of words and phrases, and how the novelist arranges these words and phrases in sentences and paragraphs. Style allows the author to shape how the reader experiences the work. For example, one writer may use simple words and straightforward sentences, while another may use difficult vocabulary and elaborate sentence structures. Even if the themes of both works are similar, the differences in the authors’ styles make the experiences of reading the two works distinct.
Style can be broken down into three types: simple, complex, and mid-style. Sometimes authors carry a single style throughout an entire work. Other times, the style may vary within a novel. For example, if the novelist tells a story through the eyes of several different characters, the use of different styles may give each character a distinctive voice.
A simple style uses common words and simple sentences, even if the situation described is complex. The effect of the simple style can be to present facts to the reader without appealing to the reader’s emotions directly. Instead, the writer relies on the facts themselves to affect the reader.
A complex style uses long, elaborate sentences that contain many ideas and descriptions. The writer uses lyrical passages to create the desired mood in the reader, whether it be one of joy, sadness, confusion, or any other emotion. themselves, as their adventure turned out, wonderfully sustained.
A mid-style is a combination of the simple and complex styles. It can give a neutral tone to the book, or it can provide two different effects by contrast.Some authors use more than one style within a novel. This approach allows the author flexibility in choosing which style is appropriate at different points in the work, depending on the situation and on the character or characters being portrayed.
4.6 Give a summary of your comments on the text.